Managed Code Rootkits: Hooking into Runtime Environments
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For the Java runtime, a good assembler-disassembler pair is Jasmin and Jasper. Jasmin, provided as a JAR-based hie, can be invoked using the following command in the Java runtime: Java -jar jasmin. The output of Jasmin in this example is a class hie containing the compiled bytecode, saved as the hie ClassName.
The assembler-disassembler pair for users of the Dalvik runtime environment is Smali and Baksmali, both of which are JAR-based hies. Whereas Jasmin performs the assembly for a specihc file, Smali does that for an entire directory. Then it produces a Dalvik-compiled bytecode hie DEX hie , which in most cases should be named classes. This is how you should use the Smali assembler: java -jar smali. For the. NOTE Not to be confused with assembly language, a. NET assembly is a portable executable PE , which in our case will be a DLL that contains the bytecode-compiled representation of the IL instructions given as input to ilasm.
Object by default Compile to. DLL file as output. By default, the output filename is the same as the name of the first source file. The default extension is. NET Framework, you can find ilasm. You can also download it along with the. We will use assembler tools in the next chapter to generate modified runtime binaries from the original IL code that comes with the runtimes.
Make sure you perform these functions on a decent machine, with a least 1GB of free memory. In some cases, such as when using Java-based applications, you should explicitly instruct the runtime to increase the default heap size. You can do this by adding the switch -XmxM, which instructs the runtime to allocate MB for the current application.
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A You can find more information on ilasm. The companion to the Jasmin Java runtime assembler is the Jasper disassembler. Jasper takes bytecode instructions such as those produced by Jasmin and reassembles them into a class file containing the compiled bytecode.
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For the Dalvik runtime, the companion to the Smali assembler is Baksmali. Its output will be a DEX file often classes. For example, we can create a compiled classes. The ildasm. The output of ildasm.
Like ilasm. Uersion 2. Show exception handling clauses in raw forn. Show netadata tokens of classes and nenbers. Show original source lines as connents. Include all nanes into single quotes. Suppress output of custon attributes. Output CA blobs in verbal forn default — in binary for Suppress disassenbly progress bar window pop-up. Unlike ilasm. This allows you to visually inspect the executable structure using an easy-to-navigate tree-based display. As shown in Figure 3. Collections QP System. Assemblies 9 System.
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Binary Writer System. Buf f eredStream System. Directorylnfo ISystero. DirectorySecurit; size 9h 0x5e. String::gpt Length IL brtrue. NET binary code. When used to find bugs or to bypass security checks performed by the executable e. Debuggers also help you to understand the code execution flow, by tracking the path of instructions and watching the CPU as it traverses code branches. Most of the debuggers out there both user-mode and kernel debuggers are targeted at processing native machine code and are not intended for use on VM The Role of Debuggers runtime binaries containing bytecode that is JIT-compiled at runtime.
To debug such applications, you should use a runtime-specific, bytecode-aware debugger that lets you inspect the executable at the IL level. Such debuggers let you debug a managed application in the same way you would a native executable, with the added ability to understand the IL code. The debugger displays an IL code window and a JIT-compiled code window so that you can see how each IL instruction you debug is converted to machine-specific assembly code.
Debuggers can be used in the MCR development process in the initial steps of the information-gathering stage, usually right after you use a disassembler to generate a general overview of the target executable. It also lets you step into those methods and observe the code step by step, giving you a better understanding of the methods that are soon to be modified. A good debugger for this purpose that is used with the. Although not as fancy as PEBrowse, DILE does the required job, and most important, you have the complete source code so that you can extend it and fit it to your needs.
This free tool utilizes its built-in debug capabilities as an IDE, while adding its own display to the UI.
It lets you observe the bytecode while going through the Java code. As it is a plug-in, it simply embeds itself in an IDE, which most Java developers are familiar with. The Role of Debuggers 55 Figure 3. Although less usable in managed code environments compared to managed code debuggers , it is still useful when debugging unmanaged code such as machine code that was previously JITed.
This operation requires extra resources and takes more time compared to native code, which already contains the machine-specific instructions generated at compile time. Fortunately, vendors have devised clever ways to speed things up and avoid the use of the JIT compiler for frequently used IL bytecode. NET executable and caches them for later use. Afterward, when a. With NGEN, the compilation from IL to machine-specific code is performed once for each assembly prior to its execution, resulting in better performance.
Another reason to use NGEN is improved memory usage: a single native image DLL can be shared among multiple applications, therefore reducing the amount of allocated memory consumed by those applications. Even if you created a native image from a given managed assembly DLL, the framework still needs to have the managed assembly somewhere.
Each time the. NET Framework is installed or upgraded, new native images are created and old ones are invalidated. If an image does not exist or is invalid, the framework will revert back to the JIT compiler. Users must have administrator-level privileges to install the generated native image into the native image cache.